Neo-Puritans, a.k.a. the New Crusade, is a fictional theocratic religion/Christian denomination named in Robert A. Heinlein's novel For Us, the Living and in the novella Revolt in 2100. In the latter work, the Neo-Puritans rule the continental portions of what was the United States as a theocracy under Nehemiah Scudder. This critique of all clerical authority seems aimed especially of the Church of Latter Day Saints, or Mormons.
Heinlein was a native Missourian, the state where Mormon theology locates the Garden of Eden.